Wednesday, March 28, 2012

LISTE DE MEDICAMENTS


Liste wichtiger Wirkstoffe

Cholinerges System

M-Agonisten (Parasympathomimmetika):    
                                   Carbachol
                                   Muskarin
                                   Arecolin (ZNS-Wirkung)
                                   Metacholin
                                   Pilocarpin

M-Antagonisten (Parasympatholytika):
                                   Atropin (Vergiftung: Diazepam, Physostigmin)
                        Atropingabe: Drüsenhemmung bei Narkose, opiatbedingten Spasmen, Mydriasis, Antidot
                                   Ipratroiumbromid
                                   Oxytropium
                                   Homatropin
                                   Tropicamid
                                   Scopolamin
                                   Butylscopolamin
                                   Biperiden
                                   Metixen
                                   Pirenzepin

N-Agonisten:
                                   Nicotin
                                   Suxamethonium (Succinylcholin; depolarisierende Muskelrelaxantien)

N-Antagonisten (nicht depolarisierende MR):          
                                   Pancuronium
                                   Rocuronium
                                   Mivacurium
                                   Vecuronium
                                   Cisatracurium
                       
Indirekte Parasympathomimetika (reversible AchE-Inhibitoren):
                                   Physostigmin (ZNS-gängig)
                                   Neostigmin
                                   Pyridostigmin
                                   Flustigmin
                                   Rivastigmin (Mb. Alzheimer)
                                   Donezepil(Mb. Alzheimer)
                                   Tacrin
                                   Edrophonium
                                   Galantamin (mb. Alzheimer)
                       
Organophosphate (irreversible AchE-Hemmer; Antidot: Atropin):
                                   Parathion
                                   Malathion
                                   Sarin, Soman, Tabun
            Reaktivatoren: Obidoxin, Pralidoxin






Adrenerges System

Agonisten (auch Imidazoline):

a/b-Agonist    Adrenalin, Noradrenalin

 b-Agonist       Isoproterenol, Orciprenalin

b1-Agonist       Dobutamin (gehemmt von Clenbuterol), Dopexamin

b2-Agonist (= Sympathomimetika)
                        Fenoterol (Tokolyse),
                        Terbutalin, Bambuterol, Salmeterol, ,Salbutamol

b1b2-Agonist   Isoprenalin

a1-Agonist      Phenylephrin, Norfenefrin, Etilefrin

a2-Agonist      Clonidin (zentral post-, peripher präsynaptisch wirksam)
                        à Glaukom, HTN, Migräne, Opiatentzug
                        Xylometazolin, Oxymetazolin (peripher wirksam)

Vergleich von Adrenalin, Noradrenalin, Isoprenalin:
a1: glatte Muskulatur, Drüsen
a2: sympathische Nervenendigungen
b1: Herz
b2: Bronchien
b3: Lipolyse

Adrenalin: a1, a2, b1, b2
Noradrenalin: a1, a2, b1
Isoprenalin: b1, b2, b3

Imidazolin-Ag Moxonidin

Dopamin-Ag   Dopamin (D1, D2, a/b), Fenoldopamin (D1)


Antagonisten:

a1-Ant             Prazosin, Phentolamin (kompetetiv), Phenoxybenzamin (irreversibel)
                        Terazosin, Doxazosin, Tamsulosin (bei Prostatahypertrophie)

a2-Ant             Yohimbin, Phentolamin


Antisympathotonika
                        Reserpin (Na+-Reuptakehemmer),
                        Clonidin (a2-Agonist, Imidazol-Agonist) ,
                        Guanethidin, a-Methyl-Dopa (a2-Agonist),
                        Moxonidin (Imdazol-Ag)
                        Urapidil (peripherer a1-Ant, zentraler 5HT1A-Blocker)

b-Antagonist   Propranolol, Carvedilol (+a1-Ant)     

b1-Antagonist  Bisoprolol, Metoprolol, Atenolol
K+-Kanal-Öffner: Minoxidil (Hypertrichose), Diazoxid

Mutterkornalkaloide (partielle a2-Agonisten):
                        Dihydroergotamin, -ergotoxin, Ergotamin, Ergometrin, Bromocriptin (Parkinson)

Indirekte Sympathomimetika (NA-Release):
                        Amphetaminil, Fenetyllin, Amphetamin, Metamphetamin, Methylphenidat, Ephedrin,                                Cocain (Reuptakehemmer)

Antihypertensiva

b?-Blocker      Bisoprolol, Metoprolol, Atenolol, Esmolol, Pindolol, Timolol (Glaukom)

ACE-Hemmer (nicht in der Gravidität)          Captopril, Enalapril, Ramipril, Trandolapril, Benzazepril, Cilazapril

AT1-Blocker (AT-II-Rezeptor-Blocker)
                        Losartan, Valsartan, Irbesartan, Telmisartan, Eprosartan

Ca2+-Kanalblocker (L-Typ, hemmen den Ca2+ -Einstrom)
                        Nifedipin (und retardierte Formen; Gefäßwirkung)
                        Amlodipin, Nitrendipin
                        Verapamil (teratogen)
                        Diltiazem

5HT1A-Ag (zentral/a1-Ant postsynaptisch)
                        Urapidil (Antisympathotonikum)


Antihypertensive Pharmaka in der Schwangerschaft
            a-Methyl-Dopa
            Dihydralazin (Kalium-Kanal-Öffner), b?-Antagonisten


Antiarrhythmika

Adenosin (vasodilatativ)

I) Hemmen den schnellen Na-Einstrom
Ia) QRS­, AP­                                   Chinidin, Procainamid, Disopyramid, Ajmalin, Flecanid
Ib) QRS gleich, AP¯               Lidocain, Tocaidin, Aprindin, Phenytoin
Ic) QRS­                                Propafenon, Lorcainid
II) b-Blocker                           Propranolol, Atenolol
III) hemmen den K+-Ausstrom Sotalol, Amiodaron
IV) Calcium-Blocker   Diltiazem, Verapamil

Ca2+-Kanal-Typen:
                                   L-Typ: langsam
                                   N-Typ: schnell bis mittelschnell
                                   T-Typ: langsam
                                   P-Typ: langsam bis mittelschnell



Diuretika

Carboanhydrase-Hemmer (K+-Verlust)
                        Acetazolamid, Dorzolamid (Auge)
                       
Schleifendiuretika (Na+-/K+-2ClKanal-Blocker, [Harnsäure]­, [Ca2+]¯)
                        Furosemid, Torasemid, Etacrynsäure, Piretanid

Thiazid-Diuretika (NaCl-Carrier-Blocker im prox. Teil des distalen Tubulus, , [Ca2+]­)
                        Hydrochlorthiazid, Chlortalidon, Mefrusid, Xipamid

Kalium-sparende Diuretika (im distalen Tubulus/Sammelrohr)
                        Triamteren, Amilorid

Aldosteron-Antagonisten (im spätdistalen Tubulus)
                        Spironolacton, Eplerenon, Kaliumcanrenoat

Osmodiuretika
                        Mannit, Sorbit, Glycerin
                       
Koronare Herzkrankheit

NO-Pharmaka wie GTN, ISDN, ISMN (nicht mit Sildenafil aKa Viagra® kombinieren); Nitrattoleranz durch Thiolgruppenverbrauch
Molsidomin (direkte NO-Freisetzung, keine Nitrattoleranz)


Positiv inotrope Pharmaka

PDE-III-Hemmer
                        Milrinon, Enoximon, Piroximon

Catecholamine:
                        Dobutamin, Isoproterenol, Adrenalin, Noradrenalin (b-Agonisten)

                        Sulmazol steigert die Calcium-Empfindlichkeit                    

Glycoside –I Na-K-ATPase à +inotrop, -dromotrop, -chronotrop
                        Digitoxin, Digoxin, Methyldigoxin, b-Acetyldigoxin

                        Antidot: anti-Digoxin FAB
                        Resorptionshemmer: Cholestyramin
                        Kaliuminfusion, Atropin, Lidocain, Phenytoin


Glatter Muskel

PDE-I-Hemmer: Methylxanhine wie Theophillin, Aminophyllin, Coffein –I Adenosin-R, [cAMP]­
PDE-V-Hemmer: Sildenafil, Tadalafil, Vardenafil
Minoxidil (Öffnung sarkolemmaler KATP-Kanäle)
Dihydralazin (Gravidität)
Bosentan –I Endothelin-1 (pulmonale Hypertonie)





Lokalanästhetika (reversible Blockade der Erregungsleitung durch Hemmung des Na+-Einstroms)

Ester-Typ:       Procain, Tetracain, Benzocain
Amid-Typ:       Prilocain, Lidocain, Bupivacain, Ropivacain


Injektionsnarkotika (geringe Steuerbarkeit, Elimination über Umverteilung)
                        S-Ketamin (NMDA-Blocker, bad trips)
                        Propofol, Thiopental (Barbiturate)
                        Midazolam (Benzodiazepin)
                        Etomidat (Imidazol, Narkose-Einleitung)
                        Alfentanyl, Fentanyl, Sufentanyl, Remifentanil (Opioide)


Inhalationsnarkotika (ideales Narkotikum: gute Steuerbarkeit, Reversibilität, vegetative Stabilisierung, Sicherheitsbreite)
                        N2O, Xenon, Diethylether
                        Isofluran (riecht gut)
                        Sevofluran, Desfluran, Enfluran (Krampf)
                        Halothan


Sedativa/Hypnotika
                        Diphenhydramin
                       
                        Benzodiazepine wie    Oxazepam
                                                           Brotizolam, Midazolam, Triazolam (kurzwirksam)
                                                           Temazepam, Diazepam (langwirksam)
                                                           Flunitrazepam

                        Barbiturate wie           Methohexital, Thiopental, Hexo-, Cyclo-, Pento-, Phenobarbital

i        Schlaf: Oxa-, Triazepam, Flunitrazepam
            Angst: Prazepam, Buspiron (5HT1)    

                        Benzodiazepin-artige
                                                           Zolpidem, Zopiclon, Zaleplon (a1GABAA = sedierend «                                                               (a2GABAA = anxiolytisch)

i        Alkoholdelir: Clomethiazol (abhängig machend, stark sedierend/hypnotisch/antikonvulsiv)

                        Antagonist (GABAA-R) zur Narkosebeendigung
                                                           Flumazenil
                                                           b-Carboline (inverser Agonist)

i        Hypnotika:                             Benzodiazepine
                                                           H1-Blocker
                                                           Benzodiazepin-artige
(ideal: keine Suchterzeugung, kein Hang-over, Schlafprofil, große therapeutische Breite, keine Toleranz-Entwicklung/Toxizität)
           
i Myotonolytika:       Diazepam an GABAA
                                   Baclofen an GABAB




           
Antiepileptika/Antikonvulsiva

Na+-Kanäle                 Valproat, Carbamazepin, Phenytoin (Gingivahyperplasie), Lamotrigin, Topiramat
Ca2+-Kanäle (T-Typ)  Ethosuximid
NMDA-R                    Felbamat
GABAA-R                    Phenobarbital, Diazepam, Lorazepam, Clonazepam
GABA-Metabolismus  Vigabatrin (Abbau-Hemmung), Tiagabin, Gabapentin



Antidepressiva (Monoamin-Mangel-Theorie)

Tricyclische Antidepressiva TZA/ klassisch / NSSNRI
                                                                       Amitriptilin
                                                                       Imipramin
                                                                       Desipramin (thymeretisch)

Selektive Serotonin-Reuptake-Hemmer SSRI
                                                                       Fluoxetin, Paroxetin, Citalopram, Fluvoxamin, Sertralin

Selektiver NA-Reuptake-Hemmer SNRI       
                                                                       Reboxetin
                                                                      
MAO-Hemmer
                                                                       Moclobemid (thymeretisch), Tranylcypromin (MAOA/B)

Tertacyclische Antidepressiva
                                                                       Maprotilin, Mianserin

Lithium (ersetzt Natrium in der Zelle, hemmt die Adenylatcyclase)

Johanniskraut (Cyp3A4-Hemmung)             unselektiver Serotonin-Reuptake-Hemmer dank Hyperforin


Neuroleptika (antipsychotische Pharmaka, D2-Antagonisten)

Phenothiazine                         Chlorpromazin, Levomepromazin, Thioridazin

® schwach potent, D2/1-Blocker, anticholinerg; Schizophrenie

Butyrophenone                                   Haloperidol, Benperidol

® hochpotent, D2/1-/Ach-Blocker; EPMS

atypische/neuartige NL                      Clozapin (D4), Olanzapin, Risperidon (D2/5HT2-/a1-/H-Blocker)

® mittelpotent, D2/4-/M-/HT2-Blocker; Schizophrenie, kaum EPMS

Antidot: Bromocriptin als D2-Agonist


i EPMS:                    Frühdiskinesie: 5d
                                    Parkinsonid: 72h
                                    Spätdiskinesie: 3Jahre

i Parkinsonoid:         Neuroleptika, Reserpin, Methyldopa

Morbus Parkinson

L-Dopa (Prodrug von Dopamin, peripher schnelle Decarboxylierung)

Decarboxylase-Hemmer: Benserazid, Carbidopa

Ergolide D2-Agonisten: Lisurid, Bromocriptin, Pergolid, Cabergolid (Prolaktin-, Serotonin-Synthesehemmer)

Nicht-ergolide D2-Agonisten: Ropinirol, Pramipexol, Apomorphin (Emetikum)

MAOB-Hemmer: Selegin (selektiv, irreversibel)

COMT-Hemmer: Entacapon

NMDA-R-Antagonisten: Amantadin

M-Cholino-R-Antagonist: Biperiden, Metixen, Trihexyphenidyl

b-Blocker (unselektiv)


Blutgerinnung und Thromboaggregationshemmstoffe

Cumarine                               Warfarin, Phenprocoumon (1972)

Hochmolekulare Heparine    Heparin, Lepidurin, Danaparoidnatrium

Niedermolekulare Heparine  Certoparin, Dalteparin, Enoxaparin, Reviparin

Heparinoide                           bei Thrombozytopenie 1

COX-Inhibitor (irreversibel)   Acetylsalicylsäure

P2Y12-Antagonist                    Clopidogrel

GPIIB/IIIA-Hemmstoffe                        Abciximab, Eptifibatid (i.v.), Tirofibran (i.v.)

Thrombin-Antagonisten         Ximelagatran, Melagatran (p.o.), Hirudin, Lepidurin (Thrombozytopenie 2)

Antidota: Tranexamsäure, Protamin





Steroid- und Sexualhormone

Glucocorticoide (® Lipocortin –l PL-A2)
                                               Prednisolon, Dexamethason, Hydrocortison
                                               Budenosid, Fluticason, Beclomethasondipropionat (inhalativ)
                                               Fludrocortison (Mineralocorticoid-Wirkung)

Sexualhormone                     
                                               Levenogestrel, Norgestrel, Desogestrel  ® orale Kontrazeptiva
                                               Cyproteronactetat ® antiandrogene Wirkung
                                               Ethinylestradiol, Mestranol ® orale Kontrazeptiva

Selektive Estrogen-Rezeptor-Modulatoren (SSRM)
                                               Tamoxifen (Mamma-CA), Raloxifen (Osteoporose), Clomifen (geg. Steril.)

Selektiver Progesteron-Rezeptor-Modulator (SPRM)
                                               Mifepriston (RU 486) Schwangerschaftsabbruch

Superagonist                          Busrelin (Gonadorelin)
                                  
Aromatase-Hemmer               Formestan, Exemestan
                                               Vorozol, Letrozol
                                               Aminoglutethimid


Schmerzmittel

ASS, Diclofenac, Ibuprofen (NSAID´s)
Paracetamol (Alkohol + Paracetamol à CytP450 2E1)
Metamizol (Agranulocytose)
Selektive COX-2-Hemmer wie Valdecoxib, Celecoxib, Etoricoxib)

Tramadol, Morphin
Pethidin, Pentazocin (partiell)
Fentanyl, Remifentanil
Buprenorphin (Partialagonist), Methadon
Tilidin + Naloxon als Fixkombination nicht BTM-pflichtig!!!

Antidot: Naloxon, Naltrexon

Codein (Antitussivum)
Loperamid (nicht ZNS-gängig, keine Sucht)

µ: Toleranz, Euphorie, Miosis, supraspinale Analgesie
k: spinale Analgesie, Sedierung, Miosis
d: Dysphorie, Sedierung

Triptane (Sumatriptan) ® 5HT1-Rezeptor-Agonist



Antiphlogistika (NSAID´s)
Salicylsäure, Diclofenac, Ibuprofen, Piroxicam, Indometacin (Gicht)


Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs
                        Synthetisch:     Methotrexat, Sulfasalazin, Hydroxychloroquin
                                               Leflunomid, Azathioprin, Ciclosporin A, Auranofin, Minocyclin

                        Biologisch:      Etarnercept,
                                               Infliximab, Adalimumab (TNFa-Antikörper), Anakinra (IL-1-R-Ant)


Insulin und Insulin-Analoga

Normal-Insulin
NPH-Insulin
Zink-Acetat-Insulin-Gemische: Ultralente

Gentechnisch modifizierte Analoga:
Insulin aspart
Insulin lispro
Insulin glargin

Orale Antidiabetika

Biguanide                               Metformin (Agranulocytose)

PPARg-Agonisten (Glitazone) Rosiglitazon, Pioglitazon (Insulinsensitizer)

Sulfonylharnstoffe                  Glibenclamid, Tolbutamid, Glimepirid

Glinide                                               Repaglinid, Nateglinid

Disaccharidase-Inhibitoren    Acarbose, Miglitol (Glucosidasehemmer)

Guar                                       Guargranulat (hemmt Glc-Resorption)


Therapie der Gicht

Colchicin, Phenylbutazon, Indometacin bei akutem Anfall

Allopurinol ® Urikostatikum

Benzbromaron, Probenecid ® Urikosurika



Fettstoffwechsel

Cholinester-Aufnahme-Inhibitor (hemmt Chol.-O-Acetyltransferase)
                                               Ezetimib

Fibrate (PPRa)                                    Gemfibrozil, Fenofibrat, Clofibrat

Statine (CSE-Hemmstoffe, HMG-CoA-Reduktase-Hemmer)
                                               Simvastatin, Atorvastatin, Pravastatin, Fluvastatin, Lovastatin

Anionenaustauschharze         Cholestyramin, Colestipol

Nicotinsäure


Antihistaminika/Antiallergika

Mastzell-Stabilisatoren: Cromoglycinsäure, Nedocromil, Ketotifen

Diphenhydramin, Dimetiden

H1-Antagonisten:        Loratadin/Desloratidin, Ceterizin/Levoceterizin, Terfenadin/Fexofenandin,                                                 Mizolastin

Sekretolytikum:           Bromhexin

Mukolytikum:             Acetylcystein


Magen-Darm-Trakt

Anticholinergika (M1-Rezeptorblocker an intramuralen Nervenplexus): Pirenzepin

Sucralfat

Wismut

Protonenpumpen-Hemmer     (irreversibel, nicht kompetetiver Antagonismus, Prodrugs):
                                               Omeprazol, Esomeprazol, Lansoprazol, Pantoprazol, Rabeprazol

H2-Rezeptor-Antagonisten:     Ranitidin, Famotidin, Cimetidin (antiandrogen), Nizatidin, Roxatidin

Prostaglandin-Analoga:         Misoprostol (KI bei Schwangeren, da Abort-induzierend)

Antazida:                                Na2CO3, CaCO3, Mg-(Durchfall, Muskulatur)/Al-Hydroxid (Obstipation)

Tripeltherapie bei Helicobacter pylori Nachweis (Eradikation):
Protonenpumpen-Hemmer      + Amoxicillin              + Clarithromycin
                                               + Metronidazol            + Clarithromycin

Durchfall-Medikation:                                   Loperamid, Opiumtinktur

Laxantien:
- hydragoge ~:                                                Ricinusöl, Antrachinone, Na-Picasulfat, Bisacodyldiphenylmethan
- osmotisch wirksame salinische ~:     Na-/Mg-Sulfat, Laktulose, Sorbit
- stuhlaufweichende ~:                                   Paraffinöl, Docusat-Na
- Füll-/Quellmittel ~:                           Methylcellulose, Leinsamen

i Laxantienabusus
® komplettes Leeren des Darms ® bis das Sigmoid wieder gefüllt ist, vergeht viel Zeit u. der Chymus bleibt lange im Darm ® viel Zeit zum Eindicken ® Obstipation ® Laxantien

® Hypokaliämie ® Darmträgheit ® Passage verlangsamt ® viel Zeit zum Eindicken


Chronisch-entzündliche Darmerkrankungen

5-Aminosalicylate:      Sulfasalazin, Osalazin, Mesalazin, Klistier

TNFa-Antikörper:      Infliximab (bei Fisteln mit Metronidazol kombinieren)

Glucocorticoide:         Budesonid, Prednisolon

Immunsuppressiva:    Ciclosporin, Azathioprin


Emesis/Antiemesis

Emetika:                                 Apomorphin

Antiemetika:

H1-/M-Rezeptor-Antagonisten:           Scopolamin (M), Diphenhydramin (H1;bei Kinetosen), Meclozin (H1),                                                        Prometazin (H1)

5-HT3-Rezeptor-Antagonisten:           Odansetron, Tropisetron, Granisetron (emetogene Zytostatika)

D2-Rezeptor-Antagonisten:     Metoclopramid, Domperidon
                                               Haloperidol

Glucocorticoide:                     Dexamethason

Neurokinin-Rezeptor-Antagonisten: Aprepitant        


i Hyperemesis graviditas: Prometazin  (H1-Blocker)


Eicosanoide:                           5-Lipoxigenase-Inhibitor: Zileuton

                                               Antagonist an Cysteinyl-Rezeptoren: Montelukast, Zafirlukast

                                               Prostaglandin-Analoga: Misoprostol, Iloprost












Antibiotika/antibakteriell wirksame Chemotherapeutika

Penicilline (sekundär bakterizid):       Penicillin G, Penicillin V, Propicillin
                                                           Flucloxacillin, Oxacillin, Dicloxacillin
                                                           Amoxicillin, Ampicillin
                                                           Piperacillin, Mezlocillin
b-Lactamase-Inhibitoren:                  Clavulansäure, Sulbactam, Tazobactam

Oralcephalosporine (sek. bakterizid):            Cefaclor, Cefalexin,
                                                           Loracarbef,
                                                           Cefuroxim-Axetil,
                                                           Cefixim, Ceftibuten,
                                                           Cefpodoxim-Proxetil
Parenteralcephalosporine:                 Cefazolin, Cefuroxim, Cefotiam,
                                                           Cefoxitin, Cefotaxim (Kreuzallergie bei PEN-Allergie),
                                                           Ceftriaxon, Ceftazidim,
                                                           Cefepim

Monobactam:                                     Aztreonam (selten benutzt)
Carbapeneme:                                               Imipenem/Cilastatin, Meropenem

Tetrazykline (bakteriostatisch):                      Tetracyclin-HCl,
                                                           Minocyclin, Doxycyclin
(nicht mit PEN kombinieren! Photosensibilisierung, Knochen-, Zahnschmelzschäden)

Aminoglykoside (primäre bakterizid):            Gentamycin, Tobramycin, Netilmicin, Amikacin
                                                           (ototoxisch, nephrotoxisch)

Makrolide:                                         Erythromycin, Roxithromycin, Clarithromycin, Azithromycin

Ketolide:                                             Telithromycin
Lincomycine:                                      Clindamycin
Oxazolidinone:                                               Linezolid
Streptogramine:                                 Quinupristin/Dalfopristin

Glykopeptidantibiotika:                      Vancomycin, Teicoplanin

sonstiges:                                            Chloramphenicol (myelotoxisch)
                                                           Fosfomycin

Chinolone:                                          Norfloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin

i Harnwegsinfekte:   Nalidixinsäure (Chinolone) + Cotrimoxazol (Folsäure-Antagonisten)

Sulfonamide:                          Sulfamethoxazol
                                               Sulfadiazin
Sulfonamidkombinationen (Synergismus):   
                                               Cotrimoxazol = Sulfamethoxazol + Trimethoprim

Nitroimidazole:                       Metronidazol, Tinidazol

Nitrofurane:                           Nitrofurantoin


i Antibiotika-Kombination:  Synergismus,
                                               Addition des Wirtsspektrums,
                                               Resistenzminderung,
                                               Toxizitätsminderung (b-Lactamasen + Aminoglykoside, Cotrimoxazol)
Antituberkulotika:                  Erstrangmittel: Isoniazid,
                                                Rifampicin,
                                                Ethambutol,
                                                Streptomycin,
                                                Pyrazinamid,
                                                Terizidon

Reservemittel: Fluorchinolone, Cycloserin, Protionamid, Rifabutin

Malariamittel: Chinin, Chloroquin (hemmen die Hämpolymerase der Blutschizonten, neuro-, hepatotoxisch)
                        Mefloquin
                        Atovaquon/Proguanil (hemmt die Dihydrofolatreduktase; Blut-, Gewebsschizonten)
                        Primaquin , Pyrimethamin (Blutschizonten)
                        Artemether/Lumefantrin

Antimykotika:

Polyene (hemmen die Ergosterinsynthese):    Amphotericin B (nephro-, neurotoxisch),
                                                                       Nystatin (lokal)

Azole (hemmen die Demethylase):                 Fluconazol (ZNS-gängig),
                                                                       Itraconazol, Voriconazol, Ketoconazol

Sonstige:                                                        Terbinafin (hemmt die Squalenepoxidase)
                                                                       Caspofungin ((hemmt die Glucansyntase)
                                                                       5-Flucytosin (hepato-, hämatotoxisch)
                                                                       Griseofulvin ((hemmt die Mikrotubulusfunktion, teratogen                                                             in der Frühschwangerschaft, neuro-, phototoxisch)

Virustatika

Influenza:                                           Zanamivir, Oseltamivir (hemmen die Neuraminidase)
                                                           Amantadin (hemmt das uncoating)

Herpes simplex/Varicella zoster:       Aciclovir, Valaciclovir (Prodrug)
                                                           Famciclovir

Cytomegalie:                                      Ganciclovir, Foscarnet

Hepatitis C:                                        Ribavirin (Nucleosidanalogon, teratogen)

HIV-Infektion:            1a) nucleosidische RT-Hemmer:        Zidovudin (hämato-, neurotox.),
                                                                                  Didanosin,
                                                                                  Abacavir,
                                                                                  Zalcitabin,
                                                                                  Stavudin,
                                                                                  Lamivudin
                        1b) nucleotidische RT-Hemmer:        Tenofivir

                        1c) nicht-nucleosidische RT-Hemmer:           Efavirenz,
                                                                                  Nevirapin
                        2) Proteaseinhibitoren:                                  Indinavir,
                                                                                  Saquinavir,
                                                                                  Lopinavir
                        3) Fusionsinhibitoren:                                    Enfuvirtid

Immuntherapeutika:               Ciclosporin, Tacrolimus, Pimecrolismus, Sirolimus, Mycophenolat
                                               Methotrexat, Cyclophosphamid, Muronomab, Basiliximab
Zytostatika:                           

Alkylierende Substanzen:       Cyclophosphamid (urotoxisch ® hämorrhagische Cystitis; MESNA)
                                               Ifosfamid, Trofosfamid,
                                               Chlorambucil, Dacarbazin,
                                               Temozolomid (myelosuppressiv)

Platinverbindungen:               Cisplatin (nephrotoxisch),
                                               Carboplatin (nephrotoxisch, neurotoxisch)

Antimetaboliten:                     Methotrexat (Folsäureantagonist; nephro-, hepatotoxisch)
                                               6-Mercaptopurin (nicht mit Allopurinol kombinieren)
                                               6-Thioguanin
                                               5-Fluorouracil (hemmt die Thymidilatsynthase)
                                               Cytarabin
                                               Gemcitabin

Vinca-Alkaloide¨(Polymerisationshemmer):
                                               Vincristin (neurotoxisch)
                                               Vinblastin, Vindesin

Taxane (Depolymerisationshemmer):
                                               Paclitaxel, Docetaxel (dermatoxisch)

Topoisomerase-Hemmer:       Etoposid, Teniposid (TI-II-Hemmer)
                                               Irinotecan, Topotecan (TI-I-Hemmer)
                                                (UAW: Nausea, Emesis, Knochenmarkdepression)

Antibiotika:                             Daunorubicin, Doxorubicin, Epirubicin, Idarubicin
                                               Dactinomycin (kardio-, hepatotoxisch),
                                               Mitoxanton,
                                               Mitomycin C (Alkylanz),
                                               Bleomycin (UAW: Lungenfibrose)
                                              
weitere:                                   Hydroxyhanstoff (Ribonucleotidreduktasehemmer)
                                               Asparaginase (hemmt Lyphozytenproliferation, Allergie, Enzephalopathie)
                                               Miltefosin
                                               Imatinib  (Proteinkinasehemmer)

Hormone zur Tumortherapie:            Estrogene, Gestagene, Gonadoliberin (GnRH), Flutamid,
                                               Tamoxifen (Estrogenrezeptormodulator)
                                               Prednisolon

Aromatasehemmstoffe:                      Aminoglutethimid
                                               Exemestan
                                               Letrozol

Antikörper:                             Trastuzumab (hemmt HER2)
                                               Rituximab (hemmt CD20 der B-Lymphozyten)
                                               Cetuximab (hemmt EGFR)

           
i Schritte der Cancerogenese: Initiation, Promotion, Progression





Prodrugs:                    a-Methyl-Dopa
                                   Famciclovir
                                   Molsidomin
                                   L-Dopa
                                   Omeprazol
                                   NO-Pharmaka
                                   Etacrynsäure
                                   Ramipril

Enzyminduktoren:      Barbiturate
                                   Rifampicin
                                   Griseofulvin

Verdränger aus der Plasmaproteinbindung:
                                   Sulfonamide
                                   Sulfonylharnstoffe
                                   Phenytoin
                                   Phenylbutazon

Benzodiazepine                      vs.                               Barbiturate
situationsabhängige Wirkung                                     situationsunabhängige Wirkung
Psychische Abhängigkeit                                           psychische und körperliche Abhängigkeit
amnesiogen                                                                sedativ/hypnotisch
antikonvulsiv                                                             zentraldepressiv
hypnotisch/anxyolytisch                                            Wirkung auch ohne GABA
myotonolytisch



                                                                                                                                            
                                              
                                              








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